Important Battles in Indian History | Ancient to Medieval Period | Mughal Empire
Every Battle fought in History had the significant impact on the lives of People living in that region. Socially, Economically and Politically.
In this Article, I am going to take you on Journey of Indian History. We are going to see Important battles in Indian History which shaped India Politically, Economically and Socially.
Battles in the Ancient Period of Indian History
Timeline of Important Battles –
Battle of Hydaspes
The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought in 326 BC between Alexander the Great and King Porus of the Paurava kingdom on the banks of the river Jhelum (known to the Greeks as Hydaspes) in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent (which is modern-day Punjab, Pakistan).
In this battle, Puaravas lost Punjab region to Greek Empire ruled by Alexander.
However, Porus and his army bravely fought alexanders army and won the respect of Alexander the great and because of that very reason, Alexander asked Porus to become one of his Satraps.
Satrap was the title used for governors of Alexander.
Battle of Pataliputra
King of Nanda Dynasty Dhana Nanda was the reckless king who was known for his hideous acts. Dhana Nanda was an alcohol addict who humiliated Arya Chanakya in his royal court.
Later Arya Chanakya joined hands with Chandragupta Maurya, a leader of the rebellion against Dhana Nanda.
Army of Chandragupta with the help of smart political strategies of Chanakya overthrew Dhanananda in Pataliputra and established Mauryan Empire. And this was the rise of the Mauryan empire who ruled almost all parts of India except some south Indian regions.
Battle of Kalinga
The great king Ashoka known for his fierce war strategies and Conquests was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya. He decided to invade Kalinga in 269 BCE. Kalinga was a prosperous region consisting of peaceful and artistically skilled people with great naval army and important seaports for business.
Founder of Maurya Dynasty Chandragupta also tried to win Kalinga during his reign. However, he couldn’t defeat them.
So, Ashoka decided to complete his grandfather’s unfulfilled conquest and ended up killing thousands of innocent People. By seeing this bloodshed, Ashoka later regretted going to war with Kalinga.
This is how famous archeologist best known for his studies on Orissan culture describes Kalinga war.
No war in the history of India as important either for its intensity or for its results as the Kalinga war of Ashoka. No wars in the annals of the human history has changed the heart of the victor from one of wanton cruelty to that of an exemplary piety as this one.
After the battle of Kalinga, Ashoka renounced violence and embraced Buddhism. In the absence of Ashoka, Maurya Empire weakened and this situation gave an opportunity to small kingdoms and army generals to revolt against Maurya’s and establish their own dynasties. And because of that very particular reason, India was divided into small kingdoms and became politically unstable for the next few centuries.
Battles in the Early Medieval Period of Indian History
This period is known as the beginning of the Islamic invasion in India.
Battles of Tarain
Battles of Tarain were fought between Prithviraj Chauhan And Iranian invader Muhammad Ghori.
In the 1st battle of Tarain, Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghori. But he made a mistake by letting him go alive. One-year later Muhammad Ghori again came in India with the huge Army, on the other hand, Indian rulers did not help Prithviraj that made him less powerful. No Indian ruler provided him army support. And Chauhan had to face defeat and this incident marked the beginning of Delhi Sultanate in India.
Delhi Sultanate was 1st established by Qutub Uddin Aibak who was the army general of Muhammad Ghori and the dynasty was known as the Slave Dynasty. Because Once upon a time Aibak was a slave to Muhammad Ghori.
1st Battle of Panipat
1st battle of Panipat played important role in India’s History where Mughals defeated Delhi Sultanate ruled by Lodis.
Mughals were the descendants of Taimur Lang who invaded India very ruthlessly in 1398.
This was the 1st time India came under Mughal administration. Firstly, Mughal tried to interfere in Indian Culture and religions. Mughals demolished temples, destroyed Sanskrit writings and scriptures. They tried to destroy the roots of native culture.
But, destroying, hiding or not taking care of Sanskrit work which included scientific knowledge was Mughal Empire’s biggest mistake. It could have been India’s best chance at rapid growth and progress regarding Technology and Science.
Right now most of the Indian youth think western culture is cool. But, did you know that Bhagavad Gita played important role in the invention of a nuclear weapon by America?
Look how Robert Oppenheimer the father of atomic bomb described the incident of a nuclear test by using Sanskrit reference.
Great Physicist around the world have studied Sanskrit and have taken inspiration from Sanskrit in their theories.
India could have done all these things if people consider Sanskrit as an essential source of knowledge. So, because of Mughals India lost this chance and became more focused on agriculture.
In the Medieval period of Mughal empire wanted to stretch their kingdom throughout India and for that, they fought a series of battles, among those battles these are some important ones.
Battle of Khanwa
Battle of Khanwa was fought between the Mughal emperor Babur and Rajput ruler Rana Sanga who had support from people who were loyal to Lodi dynasty and wanted to take the revenge of their defeat in the 1st battle of Panipat. In this battle, Babur became victorious and it resulted in the consolidation of Mughal power in India.
These are the words of Babur describing armies of Indian Rulers recorded in his Diary (Baburnama).
Swordsmen though some Hindustanis may be, most of them are ignorant and unskilled in military move and stand, in soldierly counsel and procedure.
Baburnama is one of the best historic classics to read. Best books for Indian history are listed below –
However, these are the words of Babur but, another truth about this battle is that Hindustani forces lagged behind regarding technology and army equipment. Babur had canons.
After defeating, Rana Sanga Babur went on to crush Rana Sanga’s allies. In the battle of Chanderi, he killed Rana Sang’s lieutenant Medini Rai.
After the death of Babur, the Mughal throne was passed on to his successor Humayun who ignored the threats to his throne and could not manage army efficiently.
Battle of Kannauj
Sher Shah Suri, the founder of Suri Dynasty noticed carelessness of Humayun and seized the opportunity to attack the Mughal throne. Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun. After the Battle of KannaujSherr Shah Suri took control of Agra. He was good at economic reforms, army strategies and administration.
Sher Shah suri is the founder of Indian currency Rupee.
After the death of Sher Shah Suri, Sury Dynasty became weak. Humayun used this opportunity and regained his throne with the help of army which he brought from Kabul.
The second battle of Panipat
On 26 January 1556, Humayun died and general of the Suri army Hemu, known as the Vikramaditya tried to use this opportunity to defeat Mughals.
Akbar was just 12 years old and his army generals lost Delhi to Hemu. But, as soon as the Akbar and his guardianBairamm khan heard the news of their defeat, they started marching towards Delhi and the battle between them and Hemu took place at Panipat. Mughal’s won this war, and 13-year-old Akbar refused to kill Hemu by saying that he would not kill a dying man. However, his army generals thought that Akbar is a child and they executed Vikramaditya Hemu anyway.
Akbar grew up to become a fine and reasonable emperor of India. Akbar understood the importance of social and religious harmony. He used diplomatic strategies to make Hindu rulers come under one banner. By marrying princesses of different provinces Akbar maintained healthy relationships with the regional rulers. Akbar gave rights of collecting taxes to the influential community of Indians to keep his empire stable and free from rebellions and Mutinies. So this is it Guys do subscribe to our YouTube Channel and Blog to keep in touch
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Important Article to Read – Biography of Ashoka
For Mughal Emperor Akbar – Biography of Akbar
Want to know More About the Mughal Empire watch this awesome Video